Constitutional law breaks down into three discrete categories.
The first is individual or corporate rights against the federal, state, or local government. These rights are generally protected by the Bill of Rights and by the Fourteenth Amendment’s due process and equal protection clauses. Your rights include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, freedom of association, freedom to avoid compulsion to support a religion, your right to own firearms, your right to privacy from government spying or arbitrary arrest, your right to just compensation if the government takes your property by regulation or seizure, your right to a fair criminal trial with multiple due process safeguards, such as a right to cross-examine your accusers and a right against racial, ethnic, gender, or other invidious discrimination in government employment, education, contracting or otherwise.
The second category protects interstate businesses from discriminatory or burdensome laws passed by states or localities by virtue of the Constitution’s Commerce Clause. For example, a state might prohibit the sale of any farm animal or produce from out-of-state unless it was raised or produced according to specified animal welfare prescriptions. Or a state might prohibit the sale of goods produced out-of-state unless the production satisfied certain in-state greenhouse gas emission standards.
The third category includes structural rights. The Constitution’s separation of powers limits the authority of Congress to encroach on constitutional authorities of the President, and vice versa. Additionally, the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution prohibits states from regulating in areas where Congress has already spoken by statute or by executive regulations authorized by Congress. You may be able to invalidate an oppressive state or local business regulation on the ground of inconsistency with federal policy ordained by Congress or a federal agency.
These categories do not exhaust all areas of constitutional law, but they are indicative of the breadth of protections you enjoy from government oppression. It is important for you to keep in mind that constitutional rights in general are rights against the government, not against private persons or corporations. In most cases if you succeed as a plaintiff in proving a constitutional violation, the defendant will be required to pay your attorney’s fees.